Container element for any journal or book series information used in a bibliographic reference (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>)


The <series> element is used in elements that include citation information (<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <product>) to identify publications that are part of a published series. For example, a publisher may issue a “Nursing References Series” that includes a book on the history of nursing, one on current nursing practices, one on nursing education, and another containing nurses’ professional experiences. The <series> tag is used to capture that “Nursing Reference Series” information.


content-type Type of Content

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  series       (#PCDATA %series-elements;)*                 >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | named-content | styled-content | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<book-meta>, <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <nlm-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="B1"><label>1</label>
<element-citation publication-type="book">
<source>The Oscine Passerines</source>
<publisher-name>University of Texas
<series>The Birds of
South America</series>

Example 2

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B1"><label>1</label>
<mixed-citation publication-type="book">
<source>The Oscine Passerines</source>.
<publisher-name>University of Texas
(<series>The Birds of
South America</series>;