Reference Item

One item in a bibliographic list


A <ref> is typically a citation describing a referenced work (see Tagging References). This Tag Set allows notes as well as citations in a bibliographic list, but best practice is to place notes in an <fn-group> or <notes> section and use <ref-list> only for bibliographic citations.


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier
specific-use Specific Use

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  ref          %ref-model;                                  >

Expanded Content Model

(element-citation | mixed-citation | nlm-citation | note)+)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:


Example 1

A bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>

Example 2

A bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B8"><label>8. </label> 
</string-name>. <article-title>Effects and costs of 
day-care services for the chronically ill: a randomized 
experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>:
<year>1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>;
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.