Reference List (Bibliographic)

List of references (citations) for a book or book component (e.g., a chapter), which is often called “References”, “Bibliography”, or “Additional Reading”


No distinction is made between lists of cited references and lists of suggested references.

Conversion Note: The optional paragraph-level elements after the title allow for those rare cases where there is explanatory material inside the list, preceding the references. There may also be similar explanatory material inside each reference group. However, any explanatory material that is outside a citation, for example, preceding a citation or between citations, will need to be relocated to inside one of the citations during conversion.


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier
specific-use Specific Use

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  ref-list     %ref-list-model;                             >

Expanded Content Model

(label?, title?, 
(address | alternatives | array | boxed-text | chem-struct-wrap | 
fig | fig-group | graphic | map-group | media | preformat | 
supplementary-material | table-wrap | table-wrap-group | 
disp-formula | disp-formula-group | p | def-list | list | 
tex-math | mml:math | related-article | related-object | 
ack | disp-quote | speech | statement | verse-group)*, 
ref*, (ref-list)*)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<abstract>, <ack>, <app>, <app-group>, <back>, <bio>, <boxed-text>, <notes>, <ref-list>, <sec>, <trans-abstract>

Example 1

A bibliographic reference list (punctuation and spacing removed from references):

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>

Example 2

A bibliographic reference list (punctuation and spacing preserved in references):

<ref id="B8"><label>8. </label> 
</string-name>. <article-title>Effects and costs of 
day-care services for the chronically ill: a randomized 
experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>:
<year>1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>;
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.