Academic titles or professional certifications, such as “MD” or “PhD”, that may follow a person’s name


This element is only used inside the <contrib> element, relates only to people, and typically follows the name of a person.

As part of information about a contributor, the <suffix> element should be used for parts of people’s names (e.g., “Jr.”), not for degrees. The academic degrees are part of the information that is known about a contributor, not part of the name of the contributor, and should take the <degrees> element. Degree and certification information may be placed directly following the person’s name within the contributor information:

<contributor ...>

Or the <degrees> may be included later within the contributor element, interspersed with other types of contributor information such as <address>, <aff>, <bio>, and <email>.

When a bibliographic citation includes information about the degrees held by a cited author, those degrees should be treated as text and not tagged.

Related Elements

This element is not related to the similarly named MathML <degree> element, which is a mathematical term for angles and relationships and does not relate to people or education.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  degrees      (#PCDATA %degrees-elements;)*                >


Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:

<contrib> Contributor

Tagged Example

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Michael Q.</given-names>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="affDorelco"><sup>1</sup></xref>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>James C.</given-names>
<degrees>Ph D</degrees>
<aff id="affDorelco">Dorelco Corporation Ltd.</aff>
<aff id="IIDR">
<institution>Institute of Infectious Disease Research
<addr-line>Oberlin, Washington 96204;</addr-line><break/>
<aff id="UWW">
<institution>Department of Pathobiology, 
University of WallieWash</institution>
<addr-line>Oberlin, Washington 96204</addr-line>
<institution>University of Kuopio</institution> 
<institution>Kalakukko Corporation</institution>
<addr-line>17 West Jefferson St.</addr-line>
<addr-line>Suite 207</addr-line>
<addr-line>New South Finland, MD 20856.</addr-line> 
<phone>(301) 754-5766</phone>
<fax>(301) 754-5765</fax>