Abbreviation or Acronym


An abbreviation or acronym used in the text of a document, possibly including an expansion of the acronym


The linking attributes (with the standard XLink attributes) may be used to provide a live link to an expansion, definition, or additional explanation.

Conversion Note: Abbreviations, while common in STM books, are rarely tagged in the STM journal world, and will not be present in many journal DTDs. Thus, converted material cannot rely on acronyms and abbreviations being recognized unless special processing is added to recognize them. This element is expected to be quite rarely used.

This element was added explicitly to meet “Checkpoint 4.3 Annotate complex, abbreviated, or unfamiliar information with summaries and definitions” from the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 working draft (22 August 2002).


id Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Related Elements

The <def> may be used within an <abbrev> to contain, for example, the expansion of the acronym.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  abbrev       (#PCDATA %abbrev-elements;)*                 >


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<abbrev> Abbreviation or Acronym; <abbrev-journal-title> Abbreviated Journal Title; <addr-line> Address Line; <aff> Affiliation; <alt-title> Alternate Title; <article-title> Article Title; <attrib> Attribution; <bold> Bold; <chem-struct> Chemical Structure (Display); <citation> Citation; <collab> Collaborative (Group) Author; <comment> Comment in a Citation; <conf-acronym> Conference Acronym; <conf-loc> Conference Location; <conf-name> Conference Name; <conf-num> Conference Number; <conf-sponsor> Conference Sponsor; <conf-theme> Conference Theme; <contract-num> Contract/Grant Number; <contract-sponsor> Contract/Grant Sponsor; <copyright-statement> Copyright Statement; <corresp> Correspondence Information; <def-head> Definition List: Definition Head; <degrees> Degree(s); <disp-formula> Formula, Display; <edition> Edition, Cited; <email> Email Address; <etal> Et Al.; <ext-link> External Link; <fax> Fax Number: in an Address; <font> Font; <given-names> Given (First) Names; <gov> Government Report, Cited; <history> History: Document History; <inline-formula> Formula, Inline; <inline-supplementary-material> Inline Supplementary Material; <institution> Institution Name: in an Address; <issue> Issue Number; <issue-title> Issue Title; <italic> Italic; <journal-subtitle> Journal Subtitle (Full); <journal-title> Journal Title (Full); <kwd> Keyword; <label> Label (of a Figure, Reference, Etc.); <meta-name> Metadata Data Name for Custom Metadata; <meta-value> Metadata Data Value for Custom Metadata; <monospace> Monospace Text (Typewriter Text); <named-content> Named Special (Subject) Content; <on-behalf-of> On Behalf of; <overline> Overline; <p> Paragraph; <patent> Patent Number, Cited; <phone> Phone Number: in an Address; <prefix> Prefix; <preformat> Preformatted Text; <product> Product Information; <publisher-loc> Publisher’s Location; <publisher-name> Publisher’s Name; <related-article> Related Article Information; <role> Role or Function Title of Contributor; <sc> Small Caps; <self-uri> URI for This Same Article Online; <series> Series; <series-text> Series Text: Header Text to Describe; <series-title> Series Title; <sig> Signature; <sig-block> Signature Block; <source> Source; <speaker> Speaker; <std> Standard, Cited; <strike> Strike Through; <string-date> Date as a String; <string-name> Name of Person (Unstructured); <sub> Subscript; <subject> Subject Grouping Name; <subtitle> Article Subtitle; <suffix> Suffix; <sup> Superscript; <supplement> Supplement Information; <surname> Surname; <target> Target of an Internal Link; <td> Table Data Cell (XHTML table model); <term> Definition List: Term; <term-head> Definition List: Term Head; <th> Table Header Cell (XHTML table model); <title> Title; <trans-source> Translated Source; <trans-subtitle> Translated Subtitle; <trans-title> Translated Title; <underline> Underline; <uri> Uniform Resource Indicator (URI); <verse-line> Line of a Verse; <volume> Volume Number; <volume-id> Volume Identifier; <xref> X(cross) Reference

Tagged Example

<article-title>The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand
(<abbrev>DASH</abbrev>) outcome questionnaire: longitudinal
construct validity and measuring self-rated health change after
<copyright-statement>&copy;2003 Gummesson et al; licensee BioMed Central
<license license-type="open-access">
<p>This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying ...</p>
<p><bold>Background:</bold> The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and
hand (<abbrev>DASH</abbrev>) questionnaire is a self-administered
region-specific outcome instrument developed as a measure of self-rated
upper-extremity disability and symptoms. The <abbrev>DASH</abbrev>
consists mainly of a 30-item disability/symptom scale, scored 0 (no
disability) to 100. The main purpose of this study was to assess
the <italic>longitudinal construct validity</italic> of the
<abbrev>DASH</abbrev> among patients undergoing surgery. The second
phase purpose was to quantify self-rated <italic>treatment
effectiveness</italic> after surgery.</p>