Summarized description of the content of a book or of a component of a book


At present, few books contain abstracts, but with the increasing availability of books online, abstracts are becoming more common. Typically, the abstract is a very short summary of the major findings or conclusions of a work and limits its contents to a paragraph or two. But some publishers require “long” or “summary” abstracts that summarize each part (or chapter) of a work in a separate abstract section that has the same section title as the book part (or chapter). Such abstracts may be extensive, incorporating figures and tables. While the model for the element <abstract> has been made flexible enough to allow for these titled sections, it is expected that most abstracts will be much simpler and will contain one or more paragraphs.

The abstract-type attribute may be used to identify special types of abstracts required by some publishers, for example, graphical abstracts, stereochemical abstracts, ASCII abstracts for sending to small devices, and Table-of-Contents abstracts that are so short they are inserted as annotations into a Table of Contents. See the attribute page for abstract-type for a more complete list of types. If the abstract is not one of the special types listed, the abstract-type attribute should not be used.


abstract-type Type of Abstract
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

The element Translated Abstract <trans-abstract> contains another version of the abstract, one translated into a language other than that of the original publication.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  abstract     %abstract-model;                             >


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<book-meta> Book Metadata; <book-part-meta> Book Part Metadata; <collection-meta> Collection Metadata

Tagged Example

<title>GenBank: The Nucleotide Sequence Database</title>
<p>The GenBank sequence database is an annotated collection of all 
publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. 
This database is produced at National Center for Biotechnology 
Information (<xref ref-type="kwd" rid="bid.1353">NCBI</xref>) as part 
of an international collaboration with the European Molecular Biology 
Laboratory (EMBL) Data Library from the European Bioinformatics 
Institute (EBI) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). GenBank and 
its collaborators receive sequences produced in laboratories throughout 
the world from more than 100,000 distinct organisms. GenBank continues 
to grow at an exponential rate, doubling every 10 months. Release 134, 
produced in February 2003, contained over 29.3 billion nucleotide 
bases in more than 23.0 million sequences. GenBank is built by direct 
submissions from individual laboratories, as well as from bulk 
submissions from large-scale sequencing centers.</p>
<p>Direct submissions are made to ...</p>