Container element to contain the information (such as name and affiliation) about a single contributor to an article, for example, one author


Conversion Note: In a typical case, the @id attribute of an contributor’s affiliation (<aff>), correspondence information (<corresp>), or any footnote in the author note group will be pointed to by one or more Contributor<contrib> elements, thereby linking the two.

However, in those instances in which a symbol or some other mechanism denotes a relationship between a contributor and his/her affiliation, correspondence information, etc., use <xref> to point to the affiliation (<aff>), the corresponding information (<corresp>), or footnote in the author note group.

Anonymous. The name of a contributor that is being withheld or is not known may be recorded using the EMPTY element <anonymous>, which is expected cause text such an “Anonymous” or “anon.” to be generated for display or print.

Conversion Note: For users of the Elsevier Tag Sets, when the ranking or importance of authors has been marked as a note (for example, using <ranking>), the ranking information may be encoded in the <role> element. Thus, the Elsevier-tagged text:


would be converted to:



contrib-type Type of Contribution
corresp Corresponding Author
deceased Deceased
equal-contrib Equal Contribution
id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Related Elements

Use the Collaborative (Group) Author<collab> element for contributions by organizations or groups of people. Use the <on-behalf-of> element within the contributor information to indicate that a person has written as a representative of (on behalf of) an organization or group.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  contrib      %contrib-model;                              >

Expanded Content Model

((anonymous | collab | name | string-name)*, 
(degrees | address | aff | author-comment | bio | email | etal | 
ext-link | on-behalf-of | role | uri | xref)*)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:



<book-id pub-id-type="other">handbook</book-id>
<book-title>The NCBI Handbook</book-title>
<contrib contrib-type="editor" rid="bid.m.1">
<contrib contrib-type="editor" rid="bid.m.1">
<aff id="bid.m.1">
<institution>National Center for Biotechnology Information
(NCBI), National Library of Medicine, National Institutes
of Health</institution>,
<addr-line>Bethesda, MD 20892-6510</addr-line>
<publisher-name>National Center for Biotechnology Information
(NCBI), National Library of Medicine, National Institutes
of Health</publisher-name>
<publisher-loc>Bethesda, MD</publisher-loc></publisher>
<fig-count count="98"/>
<table-count count="40"/>
<equation-count count="0"/>
<ref-count count="115"/>
<page-count count="532"/>
<word-count count="149852"/>