Name of a institution or organization, such as a university or corporation, that is the affiliation for a contributor such as an author or an editor


All levels of a multi-tier organization are listed within a single <aff> element, for example, a program, a department, and a university may be part of the same <aff>. Similarly, both a division and a corporation would be inside one <aff>.

Conversion Note: In a typical case, the @id attribute of an contributor’s affiliation (<aff>), correspondence information (<corresp>), or any footnote in the author note group will be pointed to from one or more <contrib> elements, thereby linking the two.

However, in those instances in which a symbol or some other mechanism denotes a relationship between a contributor and his/her affiliation, correspondence information, etc., use <xref> to point to the affiliation (<aff>), the corresponding information (<corresp>), or footnote in the author note group.

Conversion Note: Even if the explicitly tagged numbers or symbols for author linkages are preserved in conversion, the ID/IDREF linking mechanism should be maintained or created during conversion.

Conversion Note: If an archive wishes to record divisional distinctions made by a publisher, such as an “<institution>” element with “<dept>” and “<office>” sub-elements for the affiliation, the embedded divisions could be converted to this Tag Set using <named-content> elements:

  <institution content-type="edu">
    University of Frostbite Falls
    <named-content content-type="dept">Dept of Campus Security
    <named-content content-type="dept">Dept of Moose and Squirrel
    <named-content content-type="office">Office of the Acting Dean


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  aff          (#PCDATA %aff-elements;)*                    >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | addr-line | country | fax | institution | phone | email | ext-link | multi-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | break | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | label | fn | target | xref | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<book-meta>, <book-part-meta>, <collab>, <contrib>, <contrib-group>, <person-group>

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
<aff>Departamento de Servicios de Salud de
Emergencia, Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad
de Maryland, Condado de Baltimore, USA.
<trans-title xml:lang="en">Prehospital emergency
care in Mexico City: the opportunities of the
healthcare system</trans-title>
<source>Salud Publica Mex</source>

Example 2

In a contributor group in article metadata

<book-id pub-id-type="other">handbook</book-id>
<book-title>The NCBI Handbook</book-title>
<aff id="bid.m.1">
<institution>National Center for Biotechnology Information
(NCBI), National Library of Medicine, National Institutes
of Health</institution>,
<addr-line>Bethesda, MD 20892-6510</addr-line>