Role or Function Title of Contributor

The title or role of a contributor (such as an author) to a work, for example, “Editor-in-Chief”, “Contributor”, “Chief Scientist”, “Photographer”, “Research Associate”, etc.


Information on the role or type of contribution is collected in two places: in the @contrib-type attribute on the <contrib> element, and in the <role> element (which is part of the contributor information inside a <contrib> element). For example, the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute might have a value of “editor”, whereas the content of the <role> element could be “Associate Editor”. As another example, the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute might be “author”, and the <role> element might contain “Principal Author”.

The <role> element is more likely to appear on screen or in print than the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute value.


content-type Type of Content

Related Elements

This element joins the related element <on-behalf-of> in describing the contribution of a contributor. The <role> element will say that a person is an “Editor” or “Associate Editor”, and the <on-behalf-of> element will state that this editing was undertaken as a representative of a group or organization. Although not considered best practice, work on behalf of a group may be tagged using the <role> element in some instances; see Remarks for <on-behalf-of> for a more detailed discussion.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  role         (#PCDATA %role-elements;)*                   >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | named-content | styled-content | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<collab>, <contrib>, <contrib-group>, <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>


<contrib contrib-type="author" rid="StLukes">
<given-names>John Jacob</given-names>
<role>research physiotherapist</role>
<contrib contrib-type="author" rid="RoyalInf">
<given-names>Sally B.</given-names></name>
<role>consultant physician</role>
<author-comment><p>in addition to her role as consulting 
physician on this project, Dr. Smithson owns trains the 
therapy dog used in the experiments</p></author-comment>