Issue Number

The issue number of a journal, or in rare instances, book


The <issue> element is primarily used in bibliographic references (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>) where it indicates the issue in which the cited material was published.

It a work was published in a joint issue “Iss. 2-3”, both issue numbers should be placed into a single <issue> element: <issue>1-2</issue>.


content-type Type of Content
seq Sequence

Related Elements

The related element <issue-id> records an identifier for the issue. This <issue> number element is typically just a simple number such as “4” or “35”.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  issue        (#PCDATA %issue-elements;)*                  >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | named-content | styled-content | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<book-part-meta>, <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <nlm-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="bid.41">
<article-title>A common language for physical mapping
of the human genome</article-title>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">2781285</pub-id>

Example 2

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>Designing information-abundant web 
sites: issues and recommendations</article-title>.
<source>Web Developers' Journal</source>
<year>1997</year> <season>Summer</season>;
<issue-title>World Wide Web Usability</issue-title>:
<page-range>100&ndash;101, 105, 107&ndash;120</page-range>.