Container element to contain the information (such as name and affiliation) about a single contributor to an article, for example, one author


Affiliation. The linkage from a contributor to an affiliation should be made using the ID/IDREF mechanism. The @id attribute of an <aff> element will be pointed to by one or more <contrib> elements.

Anonymous. The name of a contributor that is being withheld or is not known may be recorded using the EMPTY element <anonymous>, which is expected cause text such an “Anonymous” or “anon.” to be generated for display or print.


contrib-type Type of Contribution
corresp Corresponding Author
deceased Deceased
equal-contrib Equal Contribution
id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Related Elements

Use the <collab> element for contributions by organizations or groups of people. Use the <on-behalf-of> element within the contributor information to indicate that a person has written as a representative of (on behalf of) an organization or group.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  contrib      %contrib-model;                              >

Expanded Content Model

((anonymous | collab | name), 
role?, on-behalf-of?, aff*, address*, email*, ext-link*, uri*, bio?, author-comment?)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:


Example 1

<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital 
care for elderly people</article-title>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Anne Williams</given-names>
<role>research physiotherapist</role>
<aff>Department of Health Care
for the Elderly, St Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5 

Example 2

Issue-editors as <contrib>s

<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>
<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>