Additional information tied to a particular location in the text, which is not considered to be part of the body of the text, but is a note instead of, in addition to, as a source for, or as a commentary on either some body text or on an element in the metadata such as an author


In print, footnotes are traditionally displayed at the bottom of a printed page or in a list at the end of the article (<fn-group>); each footnote reference is marked by a number or symbol, and the text of the footnote is prefixed by the same number or symbol to help the reader associate the text with its reference(s). On screen, footnotes may appear as clickable icons, in a separate pop-up window, in a list with links at the end of an article (<fn-group>), or in a separate footnote area.

A reference to a <fn> <fn> is made with the <xref> element.

To describe a footnote that is not in the same language as the original document (for example, a Latin or Greek footnote for a document in English), use the xml:lang attribute on the footnote.

Conversion Note: When footnotes are grouped at the end of an article, wrap them in a <fn-group> and use an <xref> element in the text, as usual, to tie each footnote in the list to a particular location in the text.


fn-type Type of Footnote
id Identifier
symbol Symbol
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

A footnote <fn> usually contains material that cannot stand alone; the material must be related to a word, phrase, or paragraph already in the basic textual material. Supplementary material that stands on its own, that is related to but not directly tied to a particular place in the text, should be tagged using the <boxed-text> element.

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  fn           %fn-model;                                   >


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<aff> Affiliation; <alt-title> Alternate Title; <article-title> Article Title; <attrib> Attribution; <author-notes> Author Note Group; <bold> Bold; <chem-struct> Chemical Structure (Display); <collab> Collaborative (Group) Author; <comment> Comment in a Citation; <def-head> Definition List: Definition Head; <fn-group> Footnote Group; <italic> Italic; <meta-name> Metadata Data Name for Custom Metadata; <meta-value> Metadata Data Name For Custom Metadata; <monospace> Monospace Text (Typewriter Text); <named-content> Named Special (Subject) Content; <overline> Overline; <p> Paragraph; <product> Product Information; <sc> Small Caps; <speaker> Speaker; <strike> Strike Through; <sub> Subscript; <subtitle> Article Subtitle; <sup> Superscript; <table-wrap-foot> Table Wrapper Footer; <td> Table Data Cell (XHTML table model); <term> Definition List: Term; <term-head> Definition List: Term Head; <th> Table Header Cell (XHTML table model); <title> Title; <trans-subtitle> Translated Subtitle; <trans-title> Translated Title; <underline> Underline

Tagged Examples

Example 1

In the footer of a table:

<table-wrap id="TN0.170">
<caption><p>Numbers of patients receiving institutional 
care at the end of scheduled follow up and use of hospital 
beds among those allocated to day hospital or alternative 
<td>No comprehensive care (3 trials)</td> 
<td align="center">37/411</td> 
<td align="center">&amp;#x2002;66/403</td> 
<td align="center">0.50<xref ref-type="table-fn" rid="TF1-151"></xref>
(0.26 to 0.96)</td> 
<fn id="TF1-150"><p>Data not available for 1 trial.</p></fn> 
<fn id="TF1-151"><p>P&amp;#x003C;0.05 (random effects model).</p></fn>

Example 2

In author notes:

<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">10092260</article-id>
<fn fn-type="con"><p>Contributors: AF planned and initiated 
the review, conducted literature searches, ...</p></fn>
<fn><p>Correspondence to: Dr Forster
<fn><p>Funding: NHS Executive Northern and Yorkshire Region, 
Stroke Association.</p></fn>
<fn><p>Competing interests: None declared.</p></fn>

Example 3

In a footnote group:

<p>Funding: NHS Executive Northern and
Yorkshire Region, Stroke Association.</p>
<p>Competing interests: None declared.</p>