NLM Citation Model


Structured citation model to assist users creating “new” content; the model loosely reflects the NLM’s style in that it allows the tagging of all “legal” NLM citations and enforces the sequence in which content must appear if it is present.


Note: This model does not provide guidance on what information is required for each type of cited content. Moreover, the model assumes that punctuation between the parts of a citation will be generated on display or on export from the XML tagged according to this DTD to XML for another use. For extensive examples of formatted <nlm-citation>s see: Sample PubMed Central Citations. To see tagged versions of these examples, see: Sample PubMed Central Citations - XML Tagged.

Conversion Note: In converting documents tagged to this Journal Publishing DTD to the Archiving and Interchange DTD, the <nlm-citation> tag must be changed to <citation>, and all of the punctuation and spacing that is required between elements inside the citation must be inserted.


citation-type Type of Citation
id Identifier
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Model Information

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  nlm-citation
                        ((person-group | collab)*,
                         (article-title | trans-title)*,
                         source?, patent?, trans-source?, year?,
                         ((month?, day?, time-stamp?) | season?),
                         access-date?, volume?, edition?,
                         conf-name?, conf-date?, conf-loc?,
                         (issue | supplement)*, publisher-loc?,
                         publisher-name?, (fpage?, lpage?)*,
                         page-count?, series?, comment*, pub-id*,
                         annotation?)                                >


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<ref> Reference Item

Tagged Example

<nlm-citation citation-type="journal">
<article-title>Electrogastrographic study of patients with 
unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting</article-title>